War with Netherlands (to 1654) 1655:
Jamaica captured from Spain
war with Spain (to 1659)
War with Netherlands (to 1667)
At war with Netherlands (to 1674).
Roman Catholics excluded from public offices
James II dies.
soldiers pay 12.6 pounds/yr
war with France (to 1714)
crime at its peak due to poverty, death penaly for crimes such as a seamstress stealing a bobbin of thread.
British Army is 90,000 strong & navy has 207 man-o-war.
Steam engine first developed.
Turnip starts to be grown instead of leaving ground fallow, therefore cattle have feed for winter, so not slaughtered, so more milk, more butter.
Tull invents seed drill, increases productivity.
Queen Anne accedes.
Duke of Marlborough winns Battle of Blenheim. Rewarded with land & built Blenheim Palace.
formation of the United Kingdom.
Scotland joins union.
South Seas Co formed with monopoly to supply Spanish colonies with goods. See 1720
steam engines used to pump water from coal mines
Spain cedes Gibralter to Britain.
England gets licence to sell slaves to Spanish colonies.
Landholders compelled to take an oat of allegiance to The Protestant Church and renounce Catholism.
Queen Anne dies, she had 17 pregnancies, none survived.
George I crowned.. lived in Hanover & could not speak English.
Riot Act, if 12 or more people assemble & fail to disperse it is a felony. felons are either hung or branded on thumb.
Transportation Act, felons sent to the colonies for 7 or 14 years.
South Sea Co shares go ballistic, then collapse.. The South Seas bubble.
George II came to throne.
At war with austria and spain.
Downing Street becomes official residence of Prime Minister
John Wesley preaches the principles of Methodism at Avon St Bristol.
Britain has 40,000 troops in Europe.
Bonnie Prince Charlie lands in Britain.
Battle of Culloden.
Charles Wesley of Bristol wrote: "Love devine all loves excelling" & "Hark the herald angels sing"
Sir Henry Fielding, author, started the Bow Street Runners, the first police force, but only in London.
George III crowned Prince of Wales.
Last year of the old calender, New Years day was modern March 25.
tax on gin, the drink of the masses.
farm labourer earns 5 pounds + board & lodging.
Ben Franklin proves lightning is electricity by flying a kite.
Gregorian calender accepted. date jumped from Sept 2nd to Sept 14th.
First time that New Years Day fell on January 1st
Jews to be allowed be British citizens
decision to establish a British Museum.
Marriage Act: marriage must take place in parish of residence.
George II founded Columbia University in Manhatten.
7 year war starts in Europe.
Earthquake in Lisbon causes Tsunami 90,000 dead.
Eddystone lighthouse destroyed by fire.
A mayor earns 15 pounds yr
baker earns 5 pounds year.
First St Patricks Day parade in New York.
Seven year war with France begins.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born.
Black hole of Calcutta. Calcutta captured.
Admiral John Byng executed by firing squad aboard HMS Monarch for breach of articles of war.
Battle of Plessey when 3,000 British troops under Robert Clive defeated 50,000 Indians.
Batlles this year include: Bay of Bengal (twice) , Nova Scotia, New York, Indian coast.
Halley Comet returns.
British victories at Fort Triconderosa New York and Niagara Quebec & Battle of Quiberon Bay.
first commercial canal opens in britain.
Death of George II.
George III to throne.
British capture Pondicherry.
2 earthquaqes in London.
riots are commonplace as workers do not have the right to vote or form a union.
France surrenders Canada to britain.
Britain declares war on Spain.
Britain takes Havana Cuba.
British East India Co take Manila.
War with France and American Indians ends.
Treaty of Paris ends 7 year war.
Indian chief Pontiac challenges the British at Mackinaw City to a game of lacrosse, during game the Indians hit the ball into the fort, chased after it and locked the British out of their fort. Recaptured two months later at Battle of Bushy Run.
considered start of The Industrial Revolution.
John Wilkes expelled from House of Commons for sedicious libel.
Stamp Act intorduced, direct tax on American colonies to be paid to Britain to cover the cost of war in America.
Isle of Man incorporated into United Kingdom.
curate earns 40 pounds per year.
head gardener 38 pounds + Lodging.
Bonnie Prince Charlie becomes the Stuart claimant to the British throne.
Stamp Act repealed due to reaction from America.
Daniel Boone explores the Cumberland Gap & reaches Kentucky.
First whalers reach Antartic.
First purchase tax introduced on common products.
John Wilkes imprisoned for critism of king.
famine in Bengal kills 10 million people. British East India Co insist their production levels must not fall.
Captain Cook on HMS Endeavour arrives Tahiti.
lightning hits church in Italy causing fire which reaches 200,000 lb gunpowder store and blew up 1/6 city of Brescia, as a result the Roman Catholic Church reversed its objection to lightning rods.
Boston Massacre-5 Americans killed by British Troops, event hastened War of Independance.
14yr old Marie Antoinette married 15 yr old Louis, later Louis XIV, fireworks at wedding caused fire killing 800.
Captain Cook claims East coast of New Holland (Australia).
Spain cedes Falkland Islands to Britain.
first water-wheel powered textile mill.
labourer earns 3.5 pounds year
apprentice baker 5 new pence\week.
servant earns 6.3 pounds\year
Captain Cook first to cross the Antartic circle.
British East India Co given monopoly of tea trade with American colonies.
experiments using chlorine as a disinfectant.
The Quartering Act states that American colonists must open their homes to British soldiers.
The first year that "Liberty" appers on american flag.
Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in rebellion, govenor ordered to quell with an iron hand.
Revolutionary war starts, "the shots heard around the World", george Washington appointed commander in chief of Continental Army.
Execution in Germany for witchcraft.
American declaration of Independance on July 4th.
British troops lave Boston
44% of children in Britain died before their 5th birthday.
Washington defeats Cornwallis at Battle of Princeton.
Stars & Stripes adopted.
Captain Cook reaches Hawaii names them Sandwich Islands.
France recognises American independance and declares war on Britain.
France opens first state controlled brothel.
three day riot in London
First all Iron Bridge built over River Severn in Shropshire.
First Sunday newspaper: British Gazette & Sunday Monitor
First Epsom Derby.
Pitt the younger enters Parliament
planet Uranus discovered by Herschel.
Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown ending the armed struggle of American Rev War.
Spain takes Minorca from Britain.
preliminary peace accord reached in Paris for American Independance.
British loyalists forced to leave America, some go to Bahamas.
Treaty of Versaille ends war with France.
John Wesley charters The Methodist Church.
Ben Franklin invents bifocals
First edition of Daily Universal Register later changed to The
steam engine powered looms caused boom in textile industry.
first convict ship leaves for Botany Bay with 820 convicts
11 convict ships leave for Australia.
Colonisation of New South Wales and Australia.
Start of the French Revolution
First purpose built lifeboat launched River Tyne.
First Methodist chapel opened in Bristol.
THe "Observer" first published
1792: start of French Revolution. Louis XIV in custody.
Louis XIV executed by guillotine, followed by Marie Antoinette
War with France. 10,000 british soldiers in Flanders.
cotton gin patented.
Nelson loses an eye at Calvi Corsica.
Britain declares war on France.
carpenter/bricklayer earns 7 new pence per day.
farm labourer earns 5 new pence per day + drink
mower @ harvest-time 7.5 pence per day + drink.
women @ harvest-time 2 pence per day+ drink
hoeing earns 30 new pence per acre.
head farm hand 10 pounds\ year.second farmhand 7 pounds \yr
dairymaid earns 3-5 pounds\yr
20% popultaion live in town (see 1851)
factory act: apprentices max 12 hrs \day 6 days\week
Napolean planning to invade England.
Sargeant in volunteers 7.5 pence\day
Battle of Trafalgar won by British but Lord Nelson killed.
British troops attack French in Portugal
British troops attack french in antwerp
coachman earns 15 pounds \yr + lodgings
Riots. workers smash machines which they believe cause unemployment.
French driven out of Spain, Portugal & Germany.
War of 1812, america at war with England & Canada.
In cotton mills 8% of workforce were UNDER 11 yrs old. 30% were aged 11 to 16.
Prime Minister assassinated.
British burn Washington DC.
depression due to cost of wars in Europe and America
Napolean defeated at Waterloo and sent to St Helena.
Corn Laws introduced with very severe effect on the poor.
labourer earns 8 pounds\yr + Board & lodging
53% of children died before their 5th birthday.
Cato St Conspiracy plan to kill parliamentary cabinet. All conspirators hanged.
Over 200 offences carry death penalty.
9000 a year emigrating to America.
400 a year emigrating to Australia.
school master earns 100 pounds\yr
Catholics allowed to hold office incl MP
Stockton to Darlington railway opens.
Robert Peel starts police force. "peelers" & "bobbies"
William IV crowned
under 11 yrs ......2s 3p per week
11-16.................4s 1p per week
17-21.................10s 2p per week
32-36 (max)......22s 8p per week
32-36 (women)....9s 8p per week
Reform Act, until now towns like Birmingham & Manchester dont have any MPs.
Farm riots workers smash machines, 4 hanged, 50 transported.
cholera outbreaks due to streets not paved, overcrowding, overflowing cess pits draing into water wells.
Factory Act: defined the working day as 5.30am to 8.30pm with 9-13 yr olds max 9 hrs\day and no nights. 13-18 max 12 hrs\day less 1.5 hrs breaks. Same for females
Six Dorset farm labourers sentanced to be transported to a penal colony for trying to form a trade union.. The Tolpuddle Martyers.
Poor Law Amendment Act passed: No able bodied British man can receive assistance unless he enters a workhouse.
British east India Company loses its monopoly to trade with China.
patent for Handsome Cab.
patent for sandpaper.
Gottlieb Daimler born.
Charles Darwin arrive in Galapogas Islands on HMS Beagle
First commercial railway in Europe opens in Belgium.
Municipal Corporation Act introduced the idea of a national police force.
Charles Darwin arrives Falmouth.
Bristol Riots, large crowds protest the defeat of the reform act, over 100 houses burnt, including the Bishops Castle, Customs House,, Mansion House and release prisoners. Dragoons quell riots and 100s die.
A bristol Police force started.
Rowland Hill heads a commission investigating the idea of puuting a bit of paper on letters to indicate postage has been paid.
death of King William IV.
Queen Victoria crowned.
Samuel Morse demonstrates electric telegraph.
Start of British- Afghan war
Start of steamship atlantic service.
First commercial electric telegraph system between West Drayton & Paddington.
British East India Company capture Aden.
mason earns 75-80 new pence\week
blacksmith/carpenter/plasterer earns 75 pence per week
Penny post introduced , teh penny black.
Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert.
RMS "Brittania" a Cunard paddlesteamer starts service from Liverpool to Nova Scocia.
Britain invades Beirut.
Third of Irish population depend on the potato for their survival.
British troops invade & annexe Hong Kong.
first British census on 7th June
patent for sewing machine.
First serious train crash in Paris, 59 dead.
min age in a mine now 10
SS Great Britain launched in Bristol.
First tunnel under The Thames.
Charles Dickens publishes Christmas Carol.
YMCA formed in London.
Fleet prison for debtors abolished.
safety match invented.
Factory Act: age 8-13 max 6.5 hrs/day. 13+ max 12hrs\day for 5 days + 9 hrs saturday.
Third of Irish potato crop destroyed by blight.
Potato blight in Ireland ruins 2/3 of crop causing famine
Factory Act. max 63 hrs\week
Factory Act.. max 58 hrs\week
5,000 miles of railway track.
Public Health Act. towns able to demand all new houses have drains & lavatories & provide refuse collection.
250,000 a year emigrating to America. 19000 a year emigrating to Australia.
cost of passage to America from 3 pounds 10 shillings to 5 pounds.
Ships provided 1 lb flour, 5lb oatmeal, 2lb rice, 2oz tea, 1/2 lb sugar, 1/2lb mollases per passenger for entire voyage
Second British census on 30th
50% of population live in towns.
Sir Richard Burton disguises as a muslim & visits Mecca. First known christian to do so.
Start of Crimean War
David Livingstone discovers & names Victoria Falls. "Smoke that Thunders"
80% of American emigrants are from Ireland.
estimated that over 1 million pounds is sent each year from emigrants to their UK families.
Law passed that all counties must establish a police force. Sir Robert Peel origin of the terms peelers and bobbies.
sewers being installed to remove waste.
Third british census on 8th April
Fourth British census
most workers in towns given vote.
Piped water to homes.
Bank Holidays, skilled workers to get 1 weeks paid vacation per year.
Trade Unions now legal
voting made secret.
Victoria crowned Empress of India.
schoolmaster earns 180 pounds/year
London dock strike for 6 pence per hour. (2.5 modern pence/hr)
stitching gloves at home 25 pence / dozen pair.
minimum working age raised from 10 to 11
Fifth British census
farm worker74 pence/week
Queen Victoria Dies